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Rafael Navarro-Valls
Catedrático de Derecho Eclesiástico del Estado
Universidad Complutense

Javier Martínez-Torrón
Catedrático de Derecho Eclesiástico del Estado
Universidad Complutense


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Libertà d’espressione e libertà religiosa nei documenti delle nazioni unite: il concetto di diffamazione delle religioni è superato?. (RI §410376)  


Freedom of expression and freedom of religion in documents. Should the notion of defamation of religions be abandoned? - Silvia Angeletti

I. La questione della diffamazione delle religioni entra nel dibattito internazionale II. Le Risoluzioni delle Nazioni Unite sulla diffamazione delle religioni (1999 – 2010) 2.1. Fattore etnico e appartenenza religiosa nella lotta contro le discriminazioni 2.2. Valutazioni critiche circa la “nuova” fattispecie III. L’ultima tappa: la Risoluzione del Consiglio per i diritti umani ONU contro l’intolleranza e la discriminazione religiosa (2011).

International institutions dealing with human rights have become increasingly concerned about discrimination and incitement to religious and racial hatred. With the aim of providing juridical tools against messages which offend or vilify religious communities, United Nations bodies have gone beyond the application of the so-called hate speech provisions, introducing a new kind of violation of the freedom of thought, conscience and religion: the defamation of religion. An analysis of the UN documents dealing with this issue shows that the scope of the new type of damage is to guarantee effective protection not only to individuals but also to religion or belief itself, in order to assure a high degree of social cohesion and to prevent stronger violations of human rights. The vagueness of the notion of religious defamation and, moreover, the danger of limiting freedom of expression for reasons that go beyond the traditional international standards about human rights, have raised doubts and fears among scholars, NGO’s and governments as well. The recent Human Rights Council resolution on intolerance and discrimination against religion (2011), choosing not to mention the defamation of religion, seems to have marked a turning point.

Keywords: defamation; religious freedom; freedom of expression; resolution; hate speech;

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